Some of the Academic work of the Author
PEER TO PEER COLLABORATION, OPENNESS, NEOLIBERALISM & PEER LEARNING
Credit background image: ©Taken from Kooroshication's account via Flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/kooroshication
Openness and Student Centered Learning (SCL): An Exploration of Peer Learning (PL) and Prosumer Innovation in the Knowledge Economy.
Essay by William Van Zyl (2014)
First publishing 2014; second publishing 2018 (edited) .
Imagine yourself behind a conveyor belt with an air powered tool in your hand assembling vehicles for Toyota in a factory in Japan. I am sure that after several years working for the company, you would appreciate if your employer would ask you, “How could we improve this assembly line?”, and “What are your ideas around changing the way we assemble here?”, and “I want you to collaborate with the other workers and come up with some innovative ideas to improve or change the way we do things here?”. These are just the type of questions the world out there is asking the worldwide community (internet users)....
Just as capitalism with Fordism brought new challenges and innovation to the industrial world, the ICN’s have produced a shift from ‘smoke stack fabrication’ to ‘CO-constructed mind work’ (Peters & Britez, 2008). This socioeconomic shift from a ‘physical labour intensive industry’ to a ‘white collar mode of innovation’ is marked by peer-to-peer collaboration in an ‘ever -flattening’ power shifting landscape. When Henry Ford observed that his competition, the Japanese car manufacturing companies, were employing workers that were empowered to interact and collaborate in the manufacturing and design processes at the conveyor belts, he realised that he had to change the production process to an ‘open system’. The Japanese car industry embarked on an ingenious methodology of collaboration at the production line and in doing so employed thousands of ‘volunteers’ who were more than willing to spend their energies improving the car products every day. The workers were employed to assemble and to manufacture, not primarily to improve and modify the existing products, but this evolved into CO-constructed efforts. The Japanese were breaking ground in creating a mode of production of equality and the power from top to bottom was inverted. These phenomena where the typical hierarchical management and power structure (hierarchical pyramid of management) are democratised and decentralised are a forerunner of changes to the knowledge economy.
As explained the prosumer innovation and P2P collaboration are levelling the power relationships of the knowledge industry and are contributing continuously by adding, changing, and leading mass production using new models of mass collaboration. The need of consumers to become prosumers arises when the influence and the need of peer influence are detected in consumers hacking into the power, design, and manufacturing processes. A prominent design website Designboom.com (2014) reports on ‘hacking’ as follow:
“The term hacking holds many varying definitions. The predominant meaning of the word used to refer to an illegal activity performed by computer experts, however, a new definition is slowly taking over. This new form of hacking is not done by expert computer users or digital criminals but is in fact done by everyday people. This new terminology for hacking refers to the act of modifying or customising everyday products to improve their functionality, repurpose them or just for fun” (Designboom, 2014).
“‘Crowdsourcing’ (Howe 2006) is an [another] case of such innovative collective intelligence [development]. It leverages the wisdom of crowds (Surowiecki, 2004) and is already changing the way groups of people produce knowledge, generate ideas and makes them actionable. A very famous example of a crowdsourcing outcome is the distributed encyclopaedia ‘Wikipedia’. Published research agendas are asking how techniques addressing ‘the crowd’ can be applied to non-profit environments; namely universities, and fundamental research in general” (Buecheler, Sieg, Fuchlin & Pheifer, 2010, p. 679).
The Academic paper is available at Five House Publishing.
Education and Development: Alternatives to Neoliberalism, a New Paradigm, Exploring Radical Openness and the Role of the Commons and the P2P Foundation as an Alternative Discourse to ‘Creative’ and ‘Innovative’ Modernisation.
By William Van Zyl (2014)
The theory about “modernisation” and the concept of “development education” has moved over the past decades from Neoliberalism to a future digital paradigm. With the advent of logarithmic development in the digital environment over the past 20 to 30 years the concept and emerging theories about development education requires a more robust assessment and exploration. The definition and the very nature of modernization, as well as the possibilities of modernisation theory, in relation to the knowledge economy will be discussed by drawing on the concepts of the four elements by David Suzuki (Environmentalist). Market fundamentalism is probably one of the biggest impediments of modernisation and social reform. For many years, during the past decades, this thinking was introduced and used to bring about cultural, social, economic and political change in many developing countries with the focus on markets and market reform. Neoliberalism is now seen by many as an effort to promote personal and corporate gain in the industrial world as we know it today. Collaboration, the freedom to contextualise, and ‘free’ and ‘open’ education have moved to the forefront to promote change. It has been argued by some that Neoliberalism is promoting self-interest, expanding individual property rights, promoting rigorous market exchange, and building global free trade. This view has been rigorously debated and contested by many different leaders, researchers, academia, and students as resources and education have become more open and the threat to the biosphere is identified.
This essay will explore the new paradigm of Openness and Digital Futures and the possible role it could play in Future Global Education Development and Modernization of the economies around the globe. This Commons, the Creative Commons (intellectual property rights) and the P2P Foundation (Peer-to-Peer) is a force to be reckoned with and the possibilities of this discourse, as an alternative discourse to neoliberalism has already impacted development in a profound way. It is this digital framework of collaboration (P2P), and the work of the Commons as tools for modernisation, and the knowledge economy that will be discussed. The possible creative and innovative actions to promote global development education and modernization, harnessing the digital revolution of the knowledge economy, and the development of global citizenship will be explored as a practical and new paradigm.
THE PRACTICAL INTENT OF THIS ESSAY: 8
Equilibrium of a system: parallels between the physical world and the knowledge economy. 11
The UN’s Developing Strategies Beyond 2015 & eradicating poverty. 12
Hans Rosling’s animated statistics on economic development. 13
‘Open Knowledge Economy’: The Wealth of Networks; Commons-based Peer Production. 15
Creative Capitalism: references to the World Economic Forum (2008) and Bill Gates. 16
Open aid partnership: ‘The Open Development Vision’. 17
Bio-power and Bio-politics; How does Foucault fit into this ‘new’ paradigm?. 18
The Commons: A consciousness about the biosphere & global citizenship. 19
Michel Bauwens and the P2P foundation: efforts in Ecuador to modernise the economy. 20
The FLOK (Free/Libre Open Knowledge) Society transition project in Ecuador. 22
Michel Bauwens on the FLOK Society’s work in Ecuador. 25
APA REFERENCING.. 29
ABOUT THE AUTHOR. 30
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P2P Collaboration: The Disadvantages of P2P (Peer-to-Peer) Collaboration, PAL (Peer Assisted Learning) and PL (Peer Learning).
Credit background image: Martin Grandjean.Graph representing the metadata of thousands of archive documents, documenting the social network of hundreds of League of Nations personals. Published in: Grandjean, Martin (2014). "La connaissance est un réseau". Les Cahiers du Numérique 10 (3): 37-54. About: http://www.martingrandjean.ch/archive-reseau-visualisation-donnes-sciences-humaines/
Peer Learning (PL), Peer-to-Peer collaboration (P2P), and Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) are very useful in the classroom to promote teaching and learning. However, there are some disadvantages. In this paper, the disadvantages will be discussed in general contexts, which could be used in any subject area. The practical implications for Design and Visual Communication are summarised in conclusion (subject specific). The importance of building time into courses is evident; teachers should set aside time to train students on how to collaborate and explain that a successful collaborative process looks like (Van Zyl, 2016). Quality control by teachers is important; by monitoring students closely during the collaborative process, and by providing constructive feedback (scaffolding) to students as soon as possible will impact on the success of collaboration in class (Van Zyl, 2016). Teachers should demarcate the appropriate ‘depth’ and ‘range’ as per identified curriculum level for each student and within the context of the different groups (Van Zyl, 206). Learners should know exactly what is expected and to what ‘depth’ they should investigate (Van Zyl, 2016). Teachers should be very specific. The constant monitoring of the peer processes and the rapid action by the tutor to make changes within the process is critical for managing the collaborative process successfully. The evidence of tutors ‘steering’ the collaborative process is important to the foster confidence of students (Van Zyl, 2016). Teachers should not leave it to chance. Ethical concerns, like accountability, peer-competence, intellectual property rights, and informed consent regarding PAL and P2P courses is to be managed with clear competence by the teacher (Van Zyl, 2016). See the ethical concern section for a detailed discussion on the management of peer-related teaching and learning. The last disadvantages are discussed in the following categories: no equal opportunities exist to students; students are not teachers; collaboration is not effective for all groups (e.g. gifted and talented, students with learning difficulties, physically disabled students, and other categories). Teachers should ensure that students perceive that the peer learning and peer teaching include equal opportunities for all students (Van Zyl, 2016). Teachers should not advantage some students by spending more time with them. Students should be trained to act as ‘co-teachers’, so everyone wins. Some students and groups will not benefit from peer teaching and learning. Teachers should identify these students and develop alternative programmes to suit their needs.
The advantages of peer learning and peer teaching are invaluable. Within a Design and Visual Communication context the collaborative process stimulates and develops a creative and innovative environment which stimulates students, and teachers, to provide enthusiasm, energy and competition. This could be an excellent tool for teachers to extend teaching and learning in the classroom and by incorporating technology into the process. It should be managed with care and proper planning to ensure all participants feel safe and their rights are protected. Care should be taken when students engage with technology via the Internet. Clear guidelines must be in place for students (rules of engagement).
Peer-to-peer, peer learning, Peer-assisted learning, collaboration, monitor, feedback, ethical concerns, curriculum level, steering by teacher, equal opportunities, safe environment, and taking care when using technology
Greenwood & Delquadri (1995) argues that the most effective peer assisted learning methods are those that systematically train students in their teaching roles and then monitors the ongoing accuracy and effectiveness in their implementation. Unfortunately the time constraints on assistance, training, and monitoring of student’s performance and their effective collaboration and learning, are sometimes lacking. Hence, in the next table is more comprehensive summary of the disadvantages of PAL (Topping, K., & Ehly, S., 1998).
CREATIVITY-GIFTED & TALENTED
Credit background image: Taken from flickt.com. Created by Libby Levi for opensource.com. https://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4639590640
ESSAY: The Creativity Debate: Talent or Practice – What Matters More? Are schools killing creativity, and what can I do to as a high school teacher in New Zealand to enhance creativity in my own practice as a Design and Visual Communication teacher?
By William Van Zyl
"Every day millions upon millions of children and students attend schools and educational centers all over the world. They go to school with expectations to learn something new, to get a new experience and most of all to express and celebrate their own uniqueness. What are their teachers thinking about their creativity? On the creativity continuum, there are two extremes “he or she is born creative, gifted and talented” on the one end, and on the other end is “he or she has been exposed and trained by very smart parents and teachers..
ESSAY: The Creativity Debate: Talent or Practice – What Matters More? Page 7
References. Page 42
So, what could a creative lesson for a DVC year 10 student look like (15 years of age)? Page 46
Sustainable Turtle House. Page 46
Situation: You are a turtle living in Mexico (South America) during the age of the Aztec civilisation. You see the Aztecs travelling every day by boat (canoe) transporting vegetables, meat, etc. on their waterways. You and your turtle family live on the banks of the large lake and swim among the Aztec daily. Remember the Aztecs build their city on stilts in the water. It is the year 1521 ... 46
Design Brief: Design a sustainable turtle house for you and your family. The structure has to house 4 x turtles in total, including your mom and dad (or caregivers). Use bio-mimetics (ask nature how) to guide you. You have to think like a turtle (draw on your experiences-research). However, you must construct it like a human being. In other words, think like a turtle and construct (build) like a human. 47
‘The Turtle island’ - Inspired by the American Indian (mainly Iroquois) story of creation, of which there are a few slightly different versions. 48
Suggested procedure to complete the design brief: 50
Sir Ken Robinson on creativity: 51
Sir Ken Robinson - Can Creativity Be Taught?. 52
TITLE: Sustainable Turtle House Design Brief (AZTEC context) for gifted and talented students. Design and Visual Communication—to engage fifteen-year-old students. 53
More books by the author related to this book: 56
STEM, STEAM, & ESSSTEAM EDUCATION. INTEGRATED LEARNING: A LAYERED APPROACH. 56
PAPERMAKING FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS, INCLUDING POP-UP GREETING CARDS WITH CIRCUITRY. 56
ABOUT THE RESEARCHER (AUTHOR): 61
APA REFERENCING AND CITATION: Page 62
Gifted and talented students grinding acorns with a stone. Credit image: Uploaded by Joshua Tree National Park (flickr.com) on July 2,2015
How to make acorn flour... it is reported to have a 'gingerbread flavour'
VIDEO: 'FLOW' BY MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI | ANIMATED BOOK REVIEW
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DESIGN BRIEF: SUSTAINABLE AZTEC TURTLE HOUSE DESIGN (DESIGN AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION, FOR15 & 16-YEAR-OLD STUDENTS )
Turtle artwork. Credit: Sam Levine 2006 (uploaded form flickr.com)
"Sustainable Aztec Turtle House Design Brief". Architectural brief for Design and Visual Communication students. Specifically for secondary school students (15 years of age): * This paper is linked to 'ESSAY:The Creativity Debate...' academic paper shown just above this paper and contains practical resources that are available to teachers.
By William Van Zyl
First publishing 2016
Second publishing 2018 (edited)
Video Tutorial: This is a tutorial created by W van Zyl to illustrate a possible solution to the Aztec Sustainable Turtle Home design brief. It provides students and teachers with some of the basics principles and ideas to solve the brief. It contains freehand sketches and illustrations which inform sustainable architectural principles, biomimetics, Aztec culture, and more. This tutorial endeavours to start students off within a collaborative and peer learning environment (group work).
To download: https://fivehousepublishing.com/
Summary taken from the YouTube channel of William for this design brief-Sustainable Turtle House design brief-within an AZTEC context (design and Visual Communication):
Published on May 9, 2016
Second publishing 2018 (edited)
Design and Visual Communication tutorial. Architectural design brief for 15-year-old secondary school students. The tutorial explores a possible solution to a sustainable turtle house brief (Aztec context). Students to work together collaboratively in their groups.
Situation: "You are a turtle living in South America (Mexico City today), around the 1500's (Aztec civilisation). You are a member of a turtle family and every day you swim with your family at the lake. The Aztec city is called Tenochtitlan and it is built on stilts in the lake Texcoco".
Brief: " Design a Sustainable Aztec Turtle House for the turtle family of 4. The turtle home should accommodate you and your family. Consider sustainable architectural concepts (e.g. passive solar principles, etc.), biomimetics (ask nature how), and Aztec culture. Think like a turtle, but design like a human".
*This design brief links to an academic paper: ESSAY: The Creativity Debate: Talent or Practice – What Matters More?
Are schools killing creativity..." & Design brief: "Sustainable Aztec Turtle House Design Brief with a possible solution."
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Tutorial contains freehand sketches to illustrate a possible solution to the design brief, and to start students off. Credit: William van Zyl
BIOGRAPHICAL CASE STUDY: ASSESSING THE LIFE OF BILL GATES AS A CREATIVE, GIFTED AND TALENTED PERSON
By William Van Zyl
First publishing 2016
Second publishing 2018 (edited)
This case study assesses, analyses, and discusses the successful life of the entrepreneur Bill Gates (Founder of Microsoft software) as an intelligent, gifted and talented person. The work of Simonton (2000), Sternberg (2006), Renzulli (1986) Csikszentmihalyi (1999a), on talented and gifted persons, shows that Bill Gates fits into three of the four categories outlined by Riley et al. (2004) Ministry of Education (New Zealand), namely...
Bill & Melinda Gates (June 2009). Credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Gates
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See five house publishing for many MOREebooks by the author:
- Academic work
- Design and Visual Communication
- STEM project- based learning
- Peer to Peer Collaboration (P2P)
- Sustainable Architecture
- Pop up greeting card circuitry
- Fun-dough circuitry
- Christianity & Spirituality
- Children's books
- Animation Architecture
- Gedigte & Stories - Afrikaans
- Animation & Architecture
- Recipes (free downloads)
EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTS WILL ALSO BE AVAILABLE SOON (MIDDLE OF FEB 2018) ON THE FIVE HOUSE PUBLISHING WEBSITE :STEM Project-based learning (kit sets available for teachers, parents and educators - quality products). For Primary & Secondary school students.
- Papermaking from recycled paper
- Pop up Cards with circuits (Led light up, and more) - Adhesive copper tape, 3 Volt coin type battery, and more. Microcontrollers (Picaxe/Arduino Uno) programming via usb cable with open source (free) software.
- Fun-dough Circuits (playdough with electric circuits). Leds, electric motors axles, propellers, and more.
Papermaking: Skin and Bones: Armatures and Sculptural Papermaking – Ellen Kucera and Chris Petron. Credit image: flickr.com. https://www.flickr.com/photos/28526815@N08/28829944092
Ellen and Chris led students in creating sculptures from the inside out, starting with elegant armatures. Beginning with skeletal frames of wire, steel, twine, and basket weaving, students then created paper to cover their forms. Credit: flickr.com. https://www.flickr.com/photos/28526815@N08/28829944092
Papermaking in Burma. Young lady laying some beautiful flowers and leaves onto the wet paperslurry (to become decorated inlay-ed paper motif). See the large mould and deckle (frames used for scooping the wet paper slurry).
Credit image: By Thomas Schoch [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.
Overview of this book. Page 6
THE PAPERMAKING PROCESS IN SHORT. 7
ALTERNATIVE DRYING TECHNIQUE: WHEN YOU ARE IN A HURRY AND CAN’T WAIT FOR THE PAPER TO DRY – IRONING METHOD.. 8
LONGER DRYING METHOD.. 8
Equipment required for papermaking. 9
Supplies for Making Paper: 9
MAKING A SIMPLE MOULD AND DECKLE FROM PICTURE FRAMES. 9
You will need: 9
STEP 1. 10
STEP 2: 11
STEP 3: 11
HOW TO MAKE PAPER FROM THE RECYCLED PAPER. 15
STEP 1: CUT UP PAPER (ALTERNATIVELY USE A PAPER SHREDDER) 15
STEP 2: BLEND IT & MAKE A VAT OF PULP. 18
STEP 3: PULL SOME SHEETS. 18
STEP 4: COUCHING (Pronounced ‘coo-ching’) 19
STEP 5: ROLLING.. 23
STEP 6: PRESSING.. 24
Option 1: Hand Pressing. 24
Option 2: Board Pressing. 25
STEP 6: DRYING.. 27
Option 1: Quick drying using an iron (if you are in a hurry) 27
Option 2: Surface Drying (any flat surface will suffice) 27
Option 3: Exchange Drying. 27
Option 4: No Restraint Drying. 28
Option 5: Dry on Pellon or Cloth. 28
SAVING AND STORING PULP. 28
The key principles of fair trade. 29
More about Trade Aid: Prokritee (Bangladesh) the art of handmade papers. 31
VIDEO: Prokritee (Bangladesh) the art of handmade papers. 31
SAMPLES OF THE HANDMADE PAPER FROM THE WOMAN IN BANGLADESH: 31
Fun Projects to Do. 37
LEARNING ABOUT NETS: 43
STEM, STEAM, AND ESSSTEAM... 45
EXCITING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE DESIGN BRIEF: 47
ALTERNATIVE APPROACH: Tell your story through sculpture or 3-D mode. 48
MOVING FROM THE BASIC CIRCUITRY TO MORE ADVANCED ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS. 49
YOU CAN LEARN ARDUINO IN 15 MINUTES: 51
Interested in electronics?. 52
FREE SOFTWARE AVAILABLE FORM THE ARDUINO WEBSITE: 53
PRACTICE MAKING A VERY SIMPLE GREETING CARD WITH ONE LED.. 65
WHY NOT ATTEMPT TO CREATE A POP-UP GREETING CARD? INCLUDE EVERYTHING YOU HAVE LEARNED UP TO NOW. 71
HOW TO USE THE CATHEDRAL POP-UP CARD TO INCLUDE LED LIGHTS AND A MICROPROCESSOR. 72
WHAT IS A PICAXE MICROPROCESSOR?. 72
Programming Software. 73
PICAXE Editor 6 supports all PICAXE chips and has a full suite of code development features such as: 75
THE CIRCUIT TO THE CATHEDRAL POP-UP GREETING CARD: 76
Chibitronics blends art and engineering through paper electronics. 77
ABOUT THE TEACHER AND AUTHOR: 78
Credit background image: pixabay.com (free images).
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POSITION PAPER:LEARNING AND CURRICULUM IN TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION.
By W van Zyl
In this position paper, I will look at some of the important issues regarding the theorising of knowledge, concepts of knowledge, knowledge differentiation and the New Zealand Technology Curriculum. I will explore some ideas related to situated cognition and the construction of knowledge. I will then move on and focus on some issues related to the generality of learning and the context -dependency of learning. In the fourth place, we will look at curriculum theory in relation to developing Technology Curricula. Lastly, we will explore the implications for Technology education in New Zealand based on different global Technology Curricula perspectives. I will use my own experience as a Technology teacher (Design and Visual Communication-secondary school) to evaluate and critique curriculum matters as I interpret them.
Position paper: 'Issues in Technology Education'
By William Van Zyl
In this position paper, I will look at some of the important issues and research regarding school and teacher development, implementation of Technology Education, and the assessment of Technology Education. I will use my own experience as a Technology teacher (Design and Visual Communication) to interpret, evaluate, and critique the research and issues in a New Zealand education context.
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ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION & EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY
Credit background image: pixabay.com. No attribution.
By William Van Zyl
In this essay, I will begin by giving a brief overview of EE and EFS over the past 30 years. This essay will then focus on the recent trends in the world regarding EE (Environmental Education) and EfS (Education for Sustainability) and the role of education in this process. Towards the end, I will look at some of the trends in the New Zealand education system and reflect on the “bigger picture” of EE and EfS globally.
ESSAY: CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION (EE) AND EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY (EFS)
REPORT: LEAKY HOMES IN NEW ZEALAND AND THE ISSUES RELATED TO ILLNESS AND DISEASE CAUSED BY FUNGI GROWTH (FROM AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, EDUCATION FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, AND SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE PERSPECTIVE).
By Wiliam Van Zyl
Introduction: This report is about the issues of excess damp in buildings (water vapour) and its relationship with illness and diseases caused by mould and fungi growth in New Zealand homes. I will look at the health issues which water vapour causes on the interior of dwellings (“Leaky homes”). The focus will then move briefly to the waterproofing of earth buildings and natural sustainable building materials. The newly completed “Living Room”(sustainable classroom) from Hukanui primary school in Hamilton (New Zealand) will be used as an example of good building practice and good choice of sustainable building materials. In the report, I will also touch very briefly on the building code for earth buildings in NZ, regarding waterproofing and moisture content in the walls. Environmental action will be taken to make builders, council staff, architects, schools and the community in general aware of the health dangers of mold and fungi. With this action, I will also make them aware of good choices regarding quality sustainable building material, economic, political and social considerations regarding the “leaky home” issue and the solution to it. Possible lessons and approaches for teachers regarding environmental matters. To download visit fivehousepublishing.com.
SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: DESIGN AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION
Credit background: Marti Bodek. Be'er Ganim Synagogue early sketches. File:Bodek Architects Synagogue sketches. Wikipedia. Created: 21 March 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moti_Bodek#/media/File:Bodek_Architects_Synagogue_sketches.jpg
DESIGN BRIEF: UNIQUE SUSTAINABLE BACH (NCEA LEVEL 3, NEW ZEALAND)
DESIGN BRIEF: UNIQUE SUSTAINABLE BACH (NCEA LEVEL 3, NEW ZEALAND)
You are privileged to design and build your own unique bach. You are in a situation where you have the freedom to choose any location in the world. The only restrictions you are facing are the specifications given (room sizes). To design your own unique bach is the challenge you are facing. Use this freedom to investigate, to do research, and to discuss the many possibilities with your friends in class or others. Remember to document these conversations (short form).
Design your own unique bach located anywhere in the world. *Ensure you illustrate, document and explain all the different stages of your design.
Unique, bach, sustainability, biomimetics design era, artistic; scientific; economic; engineering, ideation; exhibition, display, generate design ideas, ideation
Credit cover image:
Credit image on cover page: UNIQUE BACH: Image uploaded by tpsdave
DAVID MARK • AGE 64 • MARYVILLE, TENNESSEE/UNITED STATES • MEMBER NOV. 4, 2012
Unique Bach Design Brief: DVC NCEA Level 3 (2016) Page 8
SITUATION 1: Page 8
BRIEF 1: Page 8
SUGGESTED PLANNING AND LAYOUT FOR YOUR DESIGN: Page 11
SECTION 1: Choose location. Investigate and research the area, terrain, environment, weather, climate and more. 11
SECTION 2: Investigate sustainable baches, research and explore possible shapes and forms for your unique bach. Identify the style you prefer, for example Modernism or Post Modernism. 11
DESIGN ERAS TIMELINE: 11
MINIMALIST OR MINIMALISM STYLE: 12
Minimalism Style Architects: 13
SECTION 3: Identify the specifications for the batch (size of rooms, different rooms and possible layouts). Use a bubble diagram to explore the possible layouts and configurations. 13
BUBBLE DIAGRAM (ARCHITECTURE): 14
SECTION 4: Explore a vast range of components, influences, ideas, scientific / artistic /sustainable ideas for your unique bach. 14
SECTION 5: Once you have done all the investigation, research and explored the possibilities it is time to do your ideation (generate design ideas). 15
‘How to think like an architect – The design process’. 16
‘How to Think Like An Architect: Designing From Organic Form’ 16
SECTION 6: Now only are you ready to make a freehand drawing of your 2 to 3 floor plans. The challenge is to merge (mix everything you have done to this point) together to come up with a unique bach design. You are encouraged to think differently, extend your own boundaries, be adventurous, be creative and innovative and break the mould. 17
See YouTube video: How to draw a house floor plan like an Architect (freehand sketching & tracing) 17
THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS (7, 8 & 9): As per previous DVC courses. 18
SECTION 10: EXHIBITION OF MODEL, WORK DRAWINGS AND MORE: 18
SITUATION 2: You are a new and upcoming architect in the Waikato area (New Zealand) and you get the opportunity to display your work and market yourself as an architect who specialises in sustainability and biomimetics 19
BRIEF 2: Design an exhibition for your unique sustainable bach (holiday home) in a room in the Waikato Museum, which will be provided by the museum. Include your portfolio, 3-d model, enlarged pictures of your model and design sketches/work drawings, etc. (Sketch-up). 19
SPECIFICATIONS AND AVAILABLE RESOURCES AT THE MUSEUM 3: 19
Video YouTube-exhibition Architecture: ‘STUDENTS PREPARING A MUSEUM OR EXHIBITION SPACE TO DISPLAY THEIR WORK (ARCHITECTURE)’ 21
3-D MODEL: You should create a 3-D model with the 3-D printer of your unique sustainable bach. 22
SPECIFICATIONS FOR UNIQUE BACH (Areas specified are not to be exceeded): 23
SOME UNIQUE BUILDINGS AND IDEAS YOU COULD INVESTIGATE AND USE: 24
Architecture Timeline - Historic Periods and Styles of the West 24
A Quick Tour of Architectural History. 24
Look at the Inverloch Sand Dune House, Australia. 26
Discuss and illustrate the following with regards to you design decision (Unique Bach Design): 30
Format and software used to compile your work: 31
The DVC L3 CREDITS: 32
DVC website: 32
APPENDIX A: 33
SECTION FOR TEACHERS (INCLUDING REFERENCES TO RESEARCH): 37
This paper is to inform teachers on the disadvantages of Peer Learning (PL), Peer-to-Peer collaboration (P2P), and Peer Assisted Learning (PAL). By looking at the disadvantages, it will consequently inform and prompt teachers to think about the advantages. The management of P2P collaborative processes PAL and PL is at the heart of this research. 37
What is peer-to-peer collaboration?. 39
What is peer assisted learning?. 39
What is peer learning?. 40
Comments below on disadvantages listed from no. 1 to 6 by W van Zyl–referring to Table 4 (Topping & Ehly, 1998): 43
Disadvantage no. 1: Build time into PAL courses and tutoring. 43
Disadvantage no. 2: Monitor PAL and P2P closely and give feedback as soon as possible. 43
Disadvantage no. 3: The ‘range and depth’ of PAL and P2P teaching and learning. 44
Disadvantage no. 4: Close monitoring of PAL and P2P and the rapid changes required by tutors to keep learning and teaching on track. 45
Disadvantage no. 5: Ethical concerns: accountability, peer competence, and informed consent regarding PAL and P2P courses. 45
Disadvantage no. 6: General misconceptions: No equal opportunities; students are not teachers; not effective for all groups (e.g. gifted and talented, students with learning difficulties, physically disabled students, and other categories). 46
APA Referencing & citation: 49
Van Zyl, W.N. (2016). P2P collaboration: The disadvantages of P2P (peer-to-peer) collaboration, PAL (peer assisted learning) and PL (peer learning). Published to http://williamvanzyl.com/ or https://wvanzylacademic.atavist.com/ 49
Additional Resources: Tutorials on P2P/PL/PAL platforms and systems 50
APA REFERENCING AND CITATION: Page 51
ABOUT THE RESEARCHER (AUTHOR): Page 52
Digital Collaborative Learning: Individual Study Plans (ISP's) for developing digital and collaborative skills for the 21 st Century – solving real-life problems and leading collaboratively to solve local and global burning issues (Scholarly Article).
Read the article as a blog post: https://fivehousepublishing.com/2021/08/21/digital-collaborativelearning-individual-study-plans-isps-for-developing-digital-and-collaborative-skills-for-the-21st-century-solving-real-life-problems-and-leading-collaboratively-t/
Published August 2021 by William Van Zyl.
This scholarly paper will not look at the possibilities for embedding digital and collaborative skills into subject areas. On the contrary, it will be focusing on an individual approach (ISP's) for learning in the 21 st Century. This article will explore the implementation of Individual Study Programs (ISP's) for individual students in a collaborative context developing digital skills.
Those probing questions on the future skills required for the 21 st Century.
Robinson (2015), an educator and visionary asks the following tough questions.
- "Should we reconsider the typical system which had evolved from the Industrial Revolution and the Enlightenment?"
- "Are we producing students – just like in a factory – where the process is producing students assembled on a conveyor belt? In classes, selecting specific subjects, and answering the questions correctly, will guarantee a certificate which would lead to a paid job. Would it?
- "Are our education systems preparing students for the 21 st century?"
- "Is the system of delivering education to students with questions and then placing answers in the back of the book the best way to deliver a curriculum?"
- "Not much has changed around schools in the last 100 to 70 years (Robinson, 2010). We live in a time where students receive an overload of stimulation and knowledge via digital technology and collaboration challenges. With knowledge everywhere and easy to access, shouldn't we focus on the skills identified as 21 st Century skills?"
- "Is the result of the increase in technological advancement the rise of the attention Deficit Disorder ADHD? Are we medicating ADHD students to death with Ritalin?"
Individual Study Plans (ISP's) for students.
Spencer (2017) and Robinson (2010) comment on the shifts required from what students have to learn to what do they want to learn. It’s a shift from the teacher asking all the questions to the students asking their own questions, exploring what they find interesting. They could consider the inquiry process and take their learning journey where they want to go.
It is moving away from uncritical consuming to consciously taking a critical consuming and creating perspective. It is shifting away from instruction that is differentiated to more tailor-made personalised learning. (Core Education; 2017).
And also, it is moving away from fixed to more pliable systems. Students should own the process. It is important that students are able to choose their own pace. They should be able to choose their own strategy (choosing own formats), and they should be able to decide what sources and resources they want to explore to reach their goals (Van Zyl, 2021).
Such a mind-set - where compliance is required - should allow ownership and self-direction. For example, Individual Study Plans - ISP’S (Van Zyl, 2021). In other words, the student owns his/her choices and strategies. When that happens, our students could become creative, critical thinkers, and innovators that could impact the world.
Shouldn’t we have done this 10 to 20 years ago? Change the ‘production line’ conveyor belt paradigm Robinson (2010) to an individually tailor-made learning plan for every student (Spencer 2017)?
Fadel, C. (2008). 21st Century Skills: How can you prepare students for the new Global Economy? Partnership for 21st Century Skills. https://www.oecd.org/site/educeri21st/40756908.pdf
Global Partnership for Education (2020). UNESCO. 21st Century Skills: What potential role for the Global Partnership for Education? A Landscape Review.
Pellegrino, J.W. & Hilton, M.L. - Editors (2012). Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st
Century Skills; Center for Education; Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council. Retrieved from https://hewlett.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/08/Education_for_Life_and_Work.pdf
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (n.d.). "The Future of Education and Skills." Last modified 2018.
Prensky, M. (2007). Changing Paradigms from "being taught" to "learning on your own with guidance." Published in Educational Technology, July-Aug, 2007. http://hibgroupbpr.pbworks.com/f/Prensy's+Changing+Paradigms.pdf
Parsons, D. (2021). 21st Century Skills Frameworks [Video]. Uploaded in July 2021 by The Mindlab (UNITEC – New Zealand).
Robinson, K. (2010, October 14). RSA ANIMATE: Changing Education Paradigms [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/zDZFcDGpL4U
Spencer, J. (2017, June, 10). The Shift from Engaging Students to Empowering Learners [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/BYBJQ5rIFjA
Reference for this article:
Van Zyl, W.N. (2021). Digital Collaborative Learning: Individual Study Plans (ISP's) for developing digital and collaborative skills for the 21 st Century – solving real-life problems and leading collaboratively to solve local and global burning issues. Published to Five House Publishing (academic books and resources). Link: https://fivehousepublishing.com/product/digital-collaborative-learningindividual-study-plans-isps-for-developing-digital-and-collaborative-skills-for-the-21-st-centurysolving-real-life-problems-and-leading-collaboratively-t/