BOOK  (RESEARCH: DESIGN AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION): 'THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANIMATION (COMPUTER SOFTWARE) IN TEACHING SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE (EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY) WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE SUN.' AUTHOR: WILLIAM VAN ZYL 

Cover page of the book (draft). Book is not available yet.

Estimated publishing date:  end of May 2017. The book be available at amazon.com and other book stores.

Below, a typical sustainable building in Spain is used to explain the principles involved in sustainable architecture. It highlights the use of the sun in passive solar design. The book will illustrates these principles in animated form using Google Sketch-up. 

 

Above image: City of Arts and Sciences - Spain. The building is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of ValenciaSpain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia. Typical hi-tech building focusing on sustainable features and functions like passive solar design. For example, the heat-sink (concrete roof, floors and walls) absorbs heat from the sun, and releases the heat slowly during the day. Heating the building during winter - using passive solar design - will save energy. The shape and form of the building also includes 'symbolism' which acts as a pointer and icon for future developments and vision for the specific region or country.     


 Santiago Calatrava - (1998) - City of Arts and Sciences (Valencia, Spain)

THE BOOK


ABSTRACT: 

In this study, the researcher has endeavored to investigate and to explore how animation (simulation) could be used effectively to teach Sustainable Architecture in Secondary School (NCEA level 2, New Zealand). The students’ age ranged from between 16 – 17 years of age in this study. The three-dimensional environment (testing shadows and shading) and the final result (sustainable restaurant) were used to measure, to critique, to evaluate and to analyse the design decisions made by students when designing their sustainable restaurant. The “thinking processes“ (critical thinking) which eventually influenced design decisions, before and after a unit of work on animation was delivered to students in the Graphics class (Design and Visual Communication), were investigated. This research analysed the data collected during this study; the results were assessed and disseminated, and some recommendations are made on how to use this technique or how to improve student’s design decisions techniques. The focus was specifically on sunlight and the impact thereof on the restaurant during specific times during the day, which included specific seasons (summer and winter). The two different seasons, for example, summer and winter, and the impact of the sun on the building were explored and studied during this research project. The result of the study showed an increase in understanding on how the sun impacts the building and the effect it has on the building when using simulation software. It was also clear that simulation developed the in-depth thinking processes of students regarding Education for Sustainability (EfS) and Environmental Education for Sustainability (EEFS). There was a significant change in the perception of sustainability before and after the unit on animation was delivered. The software, Google Sketch-up (computer aided design program) used in this study, was very successful in obtaining answers to the questions on the effect of animation on Education for Sustainability in general. Students were fully engaged and were able to change and manipulate several variables like the position of deciduous trees, the position of louvers, the size of windows, Trombe walls, choice of building materials, and more. From this study, it became apparent that the software used contributed significantly to enhancing teaching, specifically “Education for Sustainability” (EfS). An increase in the interpretation and understanding of different areas regarding the choice of sustainable materials, sustainable systems, sustainable landscaping, and the impact of the sun on the building were achieved. The research did support the two research questions:   

1.    Did the unit of work on simulation and animation develop the critical thinking skills of students?

2.    Did the unit of work improved the student’s abilities to make informed decisions regarding sustainability and did they make successful modifications to their initial design work to enhance the sustainability features and functions?

The research also supported the common thread of EfS and EEFS namely: relevance of EfS; holistic approach; holistic curriculum approach, the role of values; issue-based learning; environmental action; critical education; and the future dimension in teaching Education for Sustainability as addressed by Tilbury (1995). In this study, the animation was evaluated and assessed against the notion and threads of EfS and EEFS, and the research refers to these threads throughout this study. The unit of work on animation improved the skills of students and assisted them to make informed decisions. They were able to modify their initial design successfully into a viable, sustainable restaurant displaying significant improvement of sustainability and improving their design skills during the process. 

 

 

KEYWORDS/PHRASES AND KEY CONCEPTS:

 

Google Sketch-up 

Animation

Simulation

Sustainable Architecture

Education for Sustainability (EfS)

Environmental Education for Sustainability (EEFS)

Shadows and Shading

Sun and Sustainability

Position of the Sun

Harvesting the Energy of the Sun

Deciduous Landscaping

Size and Position of Windows

Building Materials and the Sun


SUMMARY OF CONTENTS

 

(a) Background:......................................................................................................................... 9

(b) Questionnaires and interviews: a short overview................................................................. 9

(c) Acknowledgements:........................................................................................................... 10

Chapter 1: Introduction............................................................................................................ 11

1.1 Introduction to animation and sustainable architecture....................................................... 11

1.2 Animation and simulation in architectural design: “The ripple effect”................................... 11

1.3 Google Sketch-up............................................................................................................ 12

1.4 Overview of the five chapters in this study....................................................................... 15

Chapter 2: Literature Review................................................................................................... 15

2.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 15

2.2 Environmental Education for Sustainability and critical thinking skills................................. 15

2.3 Environmental Education for Sustainability: Holistic approach........................................... 17

2.3.1 A Holistic approach to sustainable architectural design.............................................. 17

2.3.2 Holistic curriculum approach.................................................................................... 17

2.3.3 Teaching values and sustainability............................................................................ 17

2.3.4 Environmental Education for Sustainability (EEFS) and issue based learning.............. 18

2.3.5 Environmental Education for Sustainability and action for the Environment................. 19

2.3.6 Environmental Education for Sustainability requires critical education........................ 19

2.3.7 A futures dimension in EEFS.................................................................................... 20

2.3.8 Hearts, heads, and hands: “In” the environment, ”about” the environment, and “for” the environment..................................................................................................................... 20

2.4 Sustainable Architecture.................................................................................................. 21

2.5 Education for sustainability (EfS)..................................................................................... 22

2.6 Animation and simulation in architectural design: A multi-disciplinary approach.................. 22

Chapter 3: Methodology.......................................................................................................... 23

3.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 23

3.2 Research questions......................................................................................................... 23

3.3 Research Methodology.................................................................................................... 23

3.3.1 Questionnaires........................................................................................................ 23

3.3.2 Interviews................................................................................................................ 24

3.4 Research design............................................................................................................. 24

3.4.1 Sampling strategies................................................................................................. 25

3.4.2 Selection of participants........................................................................................... 25

3.5 Data gathering techniques................................................................................................ 26

3.6 Data analysis procedures................................................................................................ 29

3.7 Ethical concerns.............................................................................................................. 30

3.8 Validity and reliability....................................................................................................... 30

3.9 Summary........................................................................................................................ 31

Chapter 4: Results................................................................................................................... 32

4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 32

4.2 Questionnaires: Analysis of the charts and identifying trends............................................ 32

4.3 Analysis of the Interviews................................................................................................ 33

4.4 Observation and documentation....................................................................................... 36

4.4.1 Critical questions..................................................................................................... 36

4.4.2 Critiquing................................................................................................................. 37

4.4.3 “Stakeholders” (peers)............................................................................................. 38

4.4.4 Science, Mathematics, Accounting and other subject areas....................................... 38

4.4.5 Values..................................................................................................................... 39

4.4.6 Environmental issues............................................................................................... 40

4.4.7 Action for the environment........................................................................................ 40

4.4.8 Critical education..................................................................................................... 41

4.4.9 Future dimension..................................................................................................... 41

4.4.10 In, about and for the environment............................................................................ 42

4.4.11 Changing attitudes................................................................................................. 42

4.5 Summary........................................................................................................................ 43

Chapter 5: Discussion and conclusions.................................................................................. 43

5.1 Overview........................................................................................................................ 43

5.2 Conclusions and implications........................................................................................... 45

Action research: The practitioner and the respondents....................................................... 51

5.3 Implications of this study for secondary school students................................................... 51

5.4 Recommendations to secondary teachers: Visual Design and Communication................... 52

References.............................................................................................................................. 54

APPENDIXES:

Appendix 1: Questionnaires.................................................................................................... 57

Appendix 2: Interviews............................................................................................................ 67

Appendix 3: Charts.................................................................................................................. 69

Appendix 4: Snapshots of interviewee work............................................................................ 74

Figures.................................................................................................................................... 76

Figure 1-Google Sketch-up computer aided software showing the toolbars...........................P 12

Figure 2-Google Sketch-up computer aided software showing a typical sectional view..........P 13

Figure 3- Google documents (online spreadsheet summary).................................................. P 27

  Figure 4-Online calculator…………………………………………………………………………..P 39

Figure 5-Deciduous trees are shown in Google Sketch-up (shadows and shading).....................P 46

Figure 6-Bar chart: Respondent 1’s responses before and after the unit of animation……....P 47

Figure 7- Bar graph: Respondent 7’s responses before and after the unit of animation……....P 48

Figure 2-Google SketchUp computer aided software showing a typical sectional view through a building. See the shadows and shading on the inside of this building. This tool is very useful to make design decisions regarding solar influences on a building. A daylight analysis can be done by using the shadow tools. By moving the slider (toolbar) the position of the sun changes showing the shadows and shading on the interior and the exterior of the building. Credit: http://passivehousemidwest.blogspot.co.nz/

Figure 5 -Deciduous trees are shown in Google Sketch-up (shadows and shading). Credit:

http://www.autocadsolar.com/drupal/sites/default/files/images/Overhead_view_01.jpg

 REFERENCES:

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Retrieved on 10 December 2011, from

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Zealand schools. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Limited.

 

Ministry of Education (Ed.). (2005). 2004 Teacher Census. Wellington, New Zealand:

Ministry of Education.

 

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Tilbury, D. (1995). Environmental education for sustainability: Defining the new

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Utaberta, N., Hassan Pour, B., Abdullah, N.A.G., Tahir, M., Che Ani, A.L. (2011). Developing Sustainable Architecture Education Approaches in Malaysia: A Case study of Critiques Sessions in 2 nd Year Design Studio of Architecture Department, National University of Malaysia (UKM). Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols, 71-78 (2011) pp 5003-5006. Online available since 2011/Jul/27 at www.scientific.net/  

Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland (2011). 

doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM, 71-78_5033 

Book cover (draft).